The Republic of Lithuania is an independent democratic state expressing the common will and interests of its people. The foundations of the social system are enforced by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania adopted in 1992, by a referendum which also establishes the rights, freedoms and obligations of citizens. Under that law, sovereign state power is vested in the people of Lithuania and is exercised by the President of the Republic, Seimas (Parliament), Government and Courts.
The president of the Republic is the head of State. The President represents the State of Lithuania and performs all the duties which he or she is charged with by the Constitution and laws.
The President of the Republic of Lithuania is elected by the citizens of the Republic of Lithuania on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of five years.
The Seimas is a one-chamber parliament which deliberates on and enacts amendments to the Constitution; enacts laws; adopts resolutions regarding the organization of referenda; calls presidential elections; approves or rejects the candidacy of the Prime Minister proposed by the President of the Republic; reviews the programme of the Government submitted by the Prime Minister and decides whether to approve it or not; upon the recommendation of the Government, establishes or abolishes ministries of the Republic of Lithuania; supervises the activities of the Government; and may adopt a motion of no-confidence in the Prime Minister or individual Ministers; appoints judges to, and Chairpersons of, the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court; appoints to, and dismisses from office, the State Controller as well as the Chairperson of the Board of the Bank of Lithuania; calls local government Council election; establishes the Central Electoral Committee and changes its composition; approves
the State budget and supervises the implementation thereof; fixes State taxes and other obligatory payments; ratifies or denounces international treaties whereto the Republic of Lithuania is a party, and considers other issues of foreign policy. The Seimas is composed of 141 members elected for a four-year term. The Seimas elects its Chairman (the Speaker) and Deputy Chairmen.
The government is the highest authority of executive power. It comprises the Prime Minister and Ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed or dismissed by the President of the Republic, with the approval of the Seimas. Ministers are appointed by the President of the Republic on the nomination of the Prime Minister.
The Government administers the affairs of the country, protects the inviolability of the territory of the Republic of Lithuania, and ensures State security and public order; implements laws and resolutions of the Seimas, as well as the decrees of the President; coordinates the activities of the ministries and other governmental institutions; prepares the draft budget of the State and submits it to the Seimas; executes the State Budget and reports on the fulfilment of the budget to the Seimas; drafts bills and submits them to the Seimas for consideration; establishes diplomatic relations and maintains relations with foreign countries and international organizations; and discharges other duties prescribed to the Government by the Constitution and other laws.
Justice is exercised exclusively by courts. The court system in Lithuania comprises the Constitutional Court (www.lrkt.lt), the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, circuit courts and district courts, made up of elected judges and assessors. Judges of these courts and of the Supreme Court are elected by the Seimas for a term of 5 years. Legal assistance is rendered by the Bar, while cases of business disputes are heard in the Commercial Court of the Republic of Lithuania. Criminal prosecution is exercised by the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Lithuania and by local prosecutors under his subordination. The Prosecutor General and his deputies are appointed by the Seimas. Local prosecutors are appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Lithuania.